A system in which householders or other waste generators take their waste and/or their recyclable, compostable or otherwise recoverable materials to a designated collection point. It is sometimes also referred to as drop-off collection or recycling banks.
Click here to find your nearest recycling bank.
Civic Amenity Site (also known as Household Recycling Centre or Tip)
Facility provided by a Local Authority for householders to take bulky household waste, garden wastes, and other household wastes, which are not normally taken by vehicles on domestic collection rounds.
A system in which packaging is reused more than once.
The collection infrastructure available to householders for the collection of waste and recyclable, compostable or otherwise recoverable materials. For example, individual containers (bins, sacks), communal containers, mobile recycling banks, civic amenity sites and mini recycling centres.
Composites are multi-layered sheet laminates which consist of dissimilar materials, eg. laminated juice cartons, as opposed to multi-material packages which are constructed of assembled components of different materials, eg. a bottle of wine which consists of the bottle, a cork and a label.
The natural aerobic decomposition of putrescible material which produces a product that can be used as a soil conditioner.
Misplaced materials that are not targeted (including dirty materials), but which are set out by the householder in the programme facilities. Contaminants can also be the result of failure to maintain the separation of the targeted materials during the collection and processing.
Industrial, household and commercial waste, as defined in UK legislation. Controlled waste specifically excludes mine and quarry waste, wastes from premises used for agriculture, some sewage sludge and radioactive waste. Defined by the Control of Pollution Act 1974, part 1 Section 30. It includes household, industrial and commercial waste.
Waste is recycled into products ranging from plastic dustbins to newspapers. The people who make the recycled products need to be able to sell them and this is what is meant by an end market. As more waste is recycled, more products are made and bigger end markets are needed.
Energy from waste recovery (EFW)
Household waste, which includes packaging, has a calorific value similar to coal. As such, this waste can be burned at high temperatures to create energy in the form of heat and electricity. This process is called energy from waste.
The aerobic decomposition of kitchen and garden waste organised by householders in private gardens or allotments, to either produce a soil conditioner or to achieve a reduction in their collected waste.
All wastes covered by Schedules 1 and 2 of the Controlled Waste Regulations 1992
(see link to the Environment Agencies).
The system of waste collection in which the householder or other waste generator places their waste or recoverable materials into a container ('green box') or bag and places it, on a specific day, for collection. This type of collection is also sometimes referred to as door-to-door collection.
Site used for waste disposal into / onto land.
The reprocessing in a production process of waste materials for the original purpose, or for other purposes, but excluding composting and energy recovery.
All waste collected by or on behalf of local authorities and includes all household waste, street cleaning waste and some commercial and trade waste.
Refers to the four main activities through which packaging transfers in the supply chain. These are; raw material manufacture, conversion into packaging, packing/filling the packaging and selling the packaging to someone who throws it away.
Packaging and Packaging Waste Directive
In 1994, the European Union passed a law (called a Directive) which meant that all member nations had to put into place systems to recycle packaging waste. Each member state could then decide the best system to implement in their country, as long as they ensured that they could recycle at least 50% of the packaging waste in their country. In the UK, the government passed the Producer Responsibility (Packaging Waste) Regulations. (link to Valpak website)
The treatment or upgrading of recyclable, compostable or otherwise recoverable materials at a Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) or other facility, prior to reprocessing. Upgrading operations include sorting, densification, shredding, bulking.
A scheme collecting one or more recyclable, compostable or otherwise recoverable material using any number of collection systems but which are part of a single plan. For example, a separate kerbside collection, a Civic Amenity site, street cleansing recycling programme, bulky waste collection.
To transform material by extracting value from it through reprocessing the material in a production process for the original purpose or for other purposes, including energy recovery. This is also referred to as 'to valorise'.
Recycling involves the reprocessing of wastes into new products. Many non-hazardous wastes such as paper, glass, cardboard, plastics and scrap metals can be recycled. Certain special (hazardous) wastes such as solvents can also be recycled.
The treatment of recyclable or compostable materials, after collection and processing, to prepare a secondary material that meets market specifications. For example, composting, the production of recycled plastic pellets, recycled paper or clean glass cullet.
Materials sent for final disposal after collection and processing. Residues comprise both contaminants and targeted materials that have been either missed during sorting, or contaminated so they cannot be sorted to the specification.
Involves products designed to be used a number of times in the same form, such as glass milk bottles or returnable plastic crates.
Defined under the Special Waste Regulations 1996. In broad terms, any wastes on the European Hazardous Waste List that have one or more of 14 defined hazardous properties. Controlled waste, which consists of, or contains, substances, which are 'dangerous to life' as defined in UK regulations (see links to Environment Agencies).
Development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
Products which have been discarded by the householder, commercial outlet, institution, industry or other waste generator, as having no further use.
The quantity of waste generated.
The ranking of waste management options in order of sustainability - reduce, reuse, recycle, dispose.
Management of the collection, recovery and disposal of wastes, including options for waste reduction.
The reduction of waste at source, by understanding and changing processes to reduce and prevent waste. This is also known as process or resource efficiency. Waste minimisation can include the substitution of less environmentally harmful materials in the production process.
WEEE stands for the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive. This is a piece of legislation expected to come into force in 2006 in the UK, which will require countries to collect and recycle a certain amount of waste electrical products. The products include articles such as computers, mobile telephones and televisions.
Click here to find out more about the WEEE Directive.